First-Order Priorities

Develop New Modeling Tools to Support Design and Evaluation

Version published: 

High-resolution data-assimilative models are needed to support real-world testing of macroalgal CDR pathways. These modeling tools must:

  • Account for complex interactions in the vicinity of the farm and downstream impacts[1]van der Molen, J., Ruardij, P., Mooney, K., Kerrison, P., O’Connor, N.E., Gorman, E., Timmermans, K., Wright, S., Kelly, M., Hughes, A.D., Capuzzo, E., 2018. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters. Biogeosciences 15, 1123–1147. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-1123-2018 [2]Coastal Dynamics Laboratory, faculty.sites.uci.edu/davis/methodology/.
  • Provide four-dimensional (space and time) estimates of biogeochemistry in zone of influence both in the presence and absence of macroalgae cultivation. The difference between these two simulations can be used to inform CDR estimates that account for background variability in the ocean. 
    • CDR estimates from macroalgae must include estimates of the “opportunity cost” of macroalgal carbon sequestration – how much production and export would have occurred in natural phytoplankton communities in the absence of a macroalgal farm? as well as any enhancements to marine ecosystem productivity due to the presence of a macroalgal farm – is phytoplankton production enhanced above background levels due to the presence of macroalgae farms?

To support the design of proof-of-concept field trials, these models should also: 

  • Provide estimates of the size and scale of biogeochemical modification to the ecosystem from macroalgae cultivation, allowing for informed placement of sensors to monitor the field trials
  • Be capable of simulating passive tracers (e.g. SF6) to inform whether and how these passive tracers may be useful in field trials (e.g., estimating rates of atmospheric CO2 uptake)
  • Inform a prioritized set of predictions to be tested during field trials

High-resolution data-assimilative models are needed to support real-world testing of macroalgal CDR pathways. These modeling tools must:

  • Account for complex interactions in the vicinity of the farm and downstream impacts{{1}}{{2}}
  • Provide four-dimensional (space and time) estimates of biogeochemistry in zone of influence both in the presence and absence of macroalgae cultivation. The difference between these two simulations can be used to inform CDR estimates that account for background variability in the ocean. 
    • CDR estimates from macroalgae must include estimates of the “opportunity cost” of macroalgal carbon sequestration – how much production and export would have occurred in natural phytoplankton communities in the absence of a macroalgal farm? as well as any enhancements to marine ecosystem productivity due to the presence of a macroalgal farm – is phytoplankton production enhanced above background levels due to the presence of macroalgae farms?

To support the design of proof-of-concept field trials, these models should also: 

  • Provide estimates of the size and scale of biogeochemical modification to the ecosystem from macroalgae cultivation, allowing for informed placement of sensors to monitor the field trials
  • Be capable of simulating passive tracers (e.g. SF6) to inform whether and how these passive tracers may be useful in field trials (e.g., estimating rates of atmospheric CO2 uptake)
  • Inform a prioritized set of predictions to be tested during field trials

High-resolution data-assimilative models are needed to support real-world testing of macroalgal CDR pathways. These modeling tools must:

  • Account for complex interactions in the vicinity of the farm and downstream impacts,
  • Provide four-dimensional (space and time) estimates of biogeochemistry in zone of influence both in the presence and absence of macroalgae cultivation. The difference between these two simulations can be used to inform CDR estimates that account for background variability in the ocean. 
    • CDR estimates from macroalgae must include estimates of the “opportunity cost” of macroalgal carbon sequestration – how much production and export would have occurred in natural phytoplankton communities in the absence of a macroalgal farm? as well as any enhancements to marine ecosystem productivity due to the presence of a macroalgal farm – is phytoplankton production enhanced above background levels due to the presence of macroalgae farms?

To support the design of proof-of-concept field trials, these models should also: 

  • Provide estimates of the size and scale of biogeochemical modification to the ecosystem from macroalgae cultivation, allowing for informed placement of sensors to monitor the field trials
  • Be capable of simulating passive tracers (e.g. SF6) to inform whether and how these passive tracers may be useful in field trials (e.g., estimating rates of atmospheric CO2 uptake)
  • Inform a prioritized set of predictions to be tested during field trials

Accelerate Design and Permitting of Controlled Field Trials

Version published: 

Proof-of-concept field trials are urgently needed to test both cultivation and sequestration technologies, as well as the full array of impacts. Field trials are needed to test predictions regarding: 

  • Cultivation yields and their dependence on species, ocean basin, nutrient availability, and farm design among others
  • Performance of deep-water moorings
  • Impacts to pelagic marine ecosystems
  • Performance of harvesting technologies
  • Additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere into the macroalgae

Proof-of-concept field trials are urgently needed to test both cultivation and sequestration technologies, as well as the full array of impacts. Field trials are needed to test predictions regarding: 

  • Cultivation yields and their dependence on species, ocean basin, nutrient availability, and farm design among others
  • Performance of deep-water moorings
  • Impacts to pelagic marine ecosystems
  • Performance of harvesting technologies
  • Additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere into the macroalgae

Measure the Scale and Impacts of CDR via Macroalgae Sinking

Version published: 

Specific field experiments around the impacts of sinking seaweed in the deep ocean are urgently needed. Given the extensive amount of macroalgae cultivated and harvested in the coastal zone, we have more advanced knowledge of the scale impacts of natural accretion into sediments. We now need a global research effort around the fate and impacts of sinking seaweed in the deep ocean. To advance this agenda we need to convene scientists, engineers, seaweed farmers and more to: 

  • Identify existing deep-sea observatories, facilities, and vehicles to accelerate research on the fate of macroalgal carbon intentionally sunk in the deep ocean
  • Develop a standardized list of biological indicators to measure during field trials to facilitate intercomparison between field trials
  • Collaborate with existing farms to conduct field trials. This may be especially important for offshore farms that may be more representative of the open ocean conditions necessary to scale cultivation to achieve globally relevant CDR.
  • Evaluate the potential to conduct sinking trials with portions of the supply of floating Sargassum patches to evaluate CDR and environmental impacts of sinking. Globally, there are ~10 gigatons of carbon in these Sargassum patches[1]Gouvêa LP, Assis J, Gurgel CFD, Serrão EA, Silveira TCL, Santos R, Duarte CM, Peres LMC, Carvalho VF, Batista M, Bastos E, Sissini MN, Horta PA. Golden carbon of Sargassum forests revealed as an opportunity for climate change mitigation. Sci Total Environ. 2020 Aug 10;729:138745. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138745. Epub 2020 Apr 17. Erratum in: Sci Total Environ. 2021 Apr 15;765:144696. PMID: 32498159. , much of which is otherwise destined to end up on beaches, where it may become an environmental nuisance and will decompose, returning its carbon to the atmosphere. This may also serve as a way of generating public support for macroalgae CDR given the considerable social, economic, and environmental issues caused by Sargassum patches. 
  • Review oceanographic data from past cruises, coastal observing systems, and buoy data to acquire needed physical, chemical, and biological information to assess site potential for field experiments. 
    • Data from pilot studies investigating the effects of kelp on local mitigation of ocean acidification (e.g., in the state of Washington, USA) may also provide useful information on macroalgae growth rates/carbon sequestration rates, as well as environmental co-benefits and risks.

Specific field experiments around the impacts of sinking seaweed in the deep ocean are urgently needed. Given the extensive amount of macroalgae cultivated and harvested in the coastal zone, we have more advanced knowledge of the scale impacts of natural accretion into sediments. We now need a global research effort around the fate and impacts of sinking seaweed in the deep ocean. To advance this agenda we need to convene scientists, engineers, seaweed farmers and more to: 

  • Identify existing deep-sea observatories, facilities, and vehicles to accelerate research on the fate of macroalgal carbon intentionally sunk in the deep ocean
  • Develop a standardized list of biological indicators to measure during field trials to facilitate intercomparison between field trials
  • Collaborate with existing farms to conduct field trials. This may be especially important for offshore farms that may be more representative of the open ocean conditions necessary to scale cultivation to achieve globally relevant CDR.
  • Evaluate the potential to conduct sinking trials with portions of the supply of floating Sargassum patches to evaluate CDR and environmental impacts of sinking. Globally, there are ~10 gigatons of carbon in these Sargassum patches{{1}}, much of which is otherwise destined to end up on beaches, where it may become an environmental nuisance and will decompose, returning its carbon to the atmosphere. This may also serve as a way of generating public support for macroalgae CDR given the considerable social, economic, and environmental issues caused by Sargassum patches. 
  • Review oceanographic data from past cruises, coastal observing systems, and buoy data to acquire needed physical, chemical, and biological information to assess site potential for field experiments. 
    • Data from pilot studies investigating the effects of kelp on local mitigation of ocean acidification (e.g., in the state of Washington, USA) may also provide useful information on macroalgae growth rates/carbon sequestration rates, as well as environmental co-benefits and risks.

Specific field experiments around the impacts of sinking seaweed in the deep ocean are urgently needed. Given the extensive amount of macroalgae cultivated and harvested in the coastal zone, we have more advanced knowledge of the scale impacts of natural accretion into sediments. We now need a global research effort around the fate and impacts of sinking seaweed in the deep ocean. To advance this agenda we need to convene scientists, engineers, seaweed farmers and more to: 

  • Identify existing deep-sea observatories, facilities, and vehicles to accelerate research on the fate of macroalgal carbon intentionally sunk in the deep ocean
  • Develop a standardized list of biological indicators to measure during field trials to facilitate intercomparison between field trials
  • Collaborate with existing farms to conduct field trials. This may be especially important for offshore farms that may be more representative of the open ocean conditions necessary to scale cultivation to achieve globally relevant CDR.
  • Evaluate the potential to conduct sinking trials with portions of the supply of floating Sargassum patches to evaluate CDR and environmental impacts of sinking. Globally, there are ~10 gigatons of carbon in these Sargassum patches, much of which is otherwise destined to end up on beaches, where it may become an environmental nuisance and will decompose, returning its carbon to the atmosphere. This may also serve as a way of generating public support for macroalgae CDR given the considerable social, economic, and environmental issues caused by Sargassum patches. 
  • Review oceanographic data from past cruises, coastal observing systems, and buoy data to acquire needed physical, chemical, and biological information to assess site potential for field experiments. 
    • Data from pilot studies investigating the effects of kelp on local mitigation of ocean acidification (e.g., in the state of Washington, USA) may also provide useful information on macroalgae growth rates/carbon sequestration rates, as well as environmental co-benefits and risks.

Develop New In-Water Tools for Autonomous CDR Operations

A new suite of durable, seagoing technologies are needed to support macroalgae CDR RD&D. Technology development needs include: 

A new suite of durable, seagoing technologies are needed to support macroalgae CDR RD&D. Technology development needs include: 

A new suite of durable, seagoing technologies are needed to support macroalgae CDR RD&D. Technology development needs include: 

  • Sensors:  Low cost, easy-to-use sensors to support monitoring and verification of large-scale macroalgal CDR. To accelerate sensor development{{1}}: 
    • In the near term (~ 1 year): Develop specification sheets for sensor criteria needs to support ocean-based CDR. These specification sheets should explicitly define acceptable instrumental precision, accuracy, and cost requirements.
    • Medium term (1+ years): Launch request for proposals to develop low-cost, abundant oceanographic sensors to support CDR research, development, and demonstration
  • New Autonomous and Remote Vehicles: Autonomous and remotely/autonomously operated vehicles (e.g. gliders, drones, etc.) to monitor carbon sequestration and downstream environmental impacts.
  • Air-to-Sea CO2 Measurement Tools:  Technological advances in direct observation of air-to-sea CO2 in the vicinity of macroalgae farms to support monitoring and verification protocols and to verify permanence
  • Seaworthy Power Systems: Stable, renewable sources of energy are needed at sea with minimal environmental impact to support upwelling and electricity needs for large-scale cultivation operations
  • New Harvesting and Processing Technologies: (For pathways requiring harvesting of macroalgae): New approaches to maximize efficiency and net CDR of harvesting and processing of industrial-scale quantities of macroalgae, considering the various materials handling steps along each pathway
    • New techniques to minimize impacts on farm-associated fauna (e.g. fish)

A new suite of durable, seagoing technologies are needed to support macroalgae CDR RD&D. Technology development needs include: 

  • Sensors:  Low cost, easy-to-use sensors to support monitoring and verification of large-scale macroalgal CDR. To accelerate sensor development{{1}}: 
    • In the near term (~ 1 year): Develop specification sheets for sensor criteria needs to support ocean-based CDR. These specification sheets should explicitly define acceptable instrumental precision, accuracy, and cost requirements.
    • Medium term (1+ years): Launch request for proposals to develop low-cost, abundant oceanographic sensors to support CDR research, development, and demonstration
  • New Autonomous and Remote Vehicles: Autonomous and remotely/autonomously operated vehicles (e.g. gliders, drones, etc.) to monitor carbon sequestration and downstream environmental impacts.
  • Air-to-Sea CO2 Measurement Tools:  Technological advances in direct observation of air-to-sea CO2 in the vicinity of macroalgae farms to support monitoring and verification protocols and to verify permanence
  • Seaworthy Power Systems: Stable, renewable sources of energy are needed at sea with minimal environmental impact to support upwelling and electricity needs for large-scale cultivation operations
  • New Harvesting and Processing Technologies: (For pathways requiring harvesting of macroalgae): New approaches to maximize efficiency and net CDR of harvesting and processing of industrial-scale quantities of macroalgae, considering the various materials handling steps along each pathway
    • New techniques to minimize impacts on farm-associated fauna (e.g. fish)

A new suite of durable, seagoing technologies are needed to support macroalgae CDR RD&D. Technology development needs include: 

  • Sensors:  Low cost, easy-to-use sensors to support monitoring and verification of large-scale macroalgal CDR. To accelerate sensor development{{1}}: 
    • In the near term (~ 1 year): Develop specification sheets for sensor criteria needs to support ocean-based CDR. These specification sheets should explicitly define acceptable instrumental precision, accuracy, and cost requirements.
    • Medium term (1+ years): Launch request for proposals to develop low-cost, abundant oceanographic sensors to support CDR research, development, and demonstration
  • New Autonomous and Remote Vehicles: Autonomous and remotely/autonomously operated vehicles (e.g. gliders, drones, etc.) to monitor carbon sequestration and downstream environmental impacts.
  • Air-to-Sea CO2 Measurement Tools:  Technological advances in direct observation of air-to-sea CO2 in the vicinity of macroalgae farms to support monitoring and verification protocols and to verify permanence
  • Seaworthy Power Systems: Stable, renewable sources of energy are needed at sea with minimal environmental impact to support upwelling and electricity needs for large-scale cultivation operations
  • New Harvesting and Processing Technologies: (For pathways requiring harvesting of macroalgae): New approaches to maximize efficiency and net CDR of harvesting and processing of industrial-scale quantities of macroalgae, considering the various materials handling steps along each pathway
    • New techniques to minimize impacts on farm-associated fauna (e.g. fish)

A new suite of durable, seagoing technologies are needed to support macroalgae CDR RD&D. Technology development needs include: 

  • Sensors:  Low cost, easy-to-use sensors to support monitoring and verification of large-scale macroalgal CDR. To accelerate sensor development: 
    • In the near term (~ 1 year): Develop specification sheets for sensor criteria needs to support ocean-based CDR. These specification sheets should explicitly define acceptable instrumental precision, accuracy, and cost requirements.
    • Medium term (1+ years): Launch request for proposals to develop low-cost, abundant oceanographic sensors to support CDR research, development, and demonstration
  • New Autonomous and Remote Vehicles: Autonomous and remotely/autonomously operated vehicles (e.g. gliders, drones, etc.) to monitor carbon sequestration and downstream environmental impacts.
  • Air-to-Sea CO2 Measurement Tools:  Technological advances in direct observation of air-to-sea CO2 in the vicinity of macroalgae farms to support monitoring and verification protocols and to verify permanence
  • Seaworthy Power Systems: Stable, renewable sources of energy are needed at sea with minimal environmental impact to support upwelling and electricity needs for large-scale cultivation operations
  • New Harvesting and Processing Technologies: (For pathways requiring harvesting of macroalgae): New approaches to maximize efficiency and net CDR of harvesting and processing of industrial-scale quantities of macroalgae, considering the various materials handling steps along each pathway
    • New techniques to minimize impacts on farm-associated fauna (e.g. fish)

Sensors

Low cost, easy-to-use sensors to support monitoring and verification of large-scale macroalgal CDR. To accelerate sensor development[1] The recently announced Ocean and Climate Innovation Accelerator (OCIA), a partnership between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Analog Devices, Inc. aims to accelerate the development and deployment of ocean sensors and could serve as a model for accelerating sensor development in other places :

  • In the near term (~ 1 year): Develop specification sheets for sensor criteria needs to support ocean-based CDR. These specification sheets should explicitly define acceptable instrumental precision, accuracy, and cost requirements.
  • Medium term (1+ years): Launch request for proposals to develop low-cost, abundant oceanographic sensors to support CDR research, development, and demonstration

New Autonomous and Remote Vehicles

Autonomous and remotely/autonomously operated vehicles (e.g. gliders, drones, etc.) to monitor carbon sequestration and downstream environmental impacts.

Air-to-Sea CO2 Measurement Tools

Technological advances in direct observation of air-to-sea CO2 in the vicinity of macroalgae farms to support monitoring and verification protocols and to verify permanence

Seaworthy Power Systems

Stable, renewable sources of energy are needed at sea with minimal environmental impact to support upwelling and electricity needs for large-scale cultivation operations

New Harvesting and Processing Technologies

(For pathways requiring harvesting of macroalgae): New approaches to maximize efficiency and net CDR of harvesting and processing of industrial-scale quantities of macroalgae, considering the various materials handling steps along each pathway

  • New techniques to minimize impacts on farm-associated fauna (e.g. fish)

Develop CDR Monitoring and Verification Protocols

Standardized methodologies from third parties to verify uptake of atmospheric CO2 resulting from macroalgae carbon sequestration will ultimately need to be developed to enable trading of carbon removal credits. Key first steps to support development of these protocols include:

Standardized methodologies from third parties to verify uptake of atmospheric CO2 resulting from macroalgae carbon sequestration will ultimately need to be developed to enable trading of carbon removal credits. Key first steps to support development of these protocols include:

Standardized methodologies from third parties to verify uptake of atmospheric CO2 resulting from macroalgae carbon sequestration will ultimately need to be developed to enable trading of carbon removal credits. Key first steps to support development of these protocols include:

  • Standardized methodologies from third parties: Certification standards for carbon sequestration from macroalgae sequestration, such as the Verified Carbon Standards from Verra need to be developed for macroalgal cultivation and carbon sequestration
  • Life Cycle Assessment Tools: Methodologies that account for life cycle emissions{{1}} to calculate stored carbon after accounting for emissions from required materials, energy, transportation/dispersal, etc.
    • The MARINER program is currently working to incorporate macroalgae modules into the GREET model to analyze the life cycle of macroalgal biofuels

Standardized methodologies from third parties to verify uptake of atmospheric CO2 resulting from macroalgae carbon sequestration will ultimately need to be developed to enable trading of carbon removal credits. Key first steps to support development of these protocols include:

  • Standardized methodologies from third parties: Certification standards for carbon sequestration from macroalgae sequestration, such as the Verified Carbon Standards from Verra need to be developed for macroalgal cultivation and carbon sequestration
  • Life Cycle Assessment Tools: Methodologies that account for life cycle emissions to calculate stored carbon after accounting for emissions from required materials, energy, transportation/dispersal, etc.
    • The MARINER program is currently working to incorporate macroalgae modules into the GREET model to analyze the life cycle of macroalgal biofuels

Standardized methodologies from third parties

Certification standards for carbon sequestration from macroalgae sequestration, such as the Verified Carbon Standards from Verra need to be developed for macroalgal cultivation and carbon sequestration

Life Cycle Assessment Tools

Methodologies that account for life cycle emissions[1]J -B E Thomas, M Sodré Ribeiro, J Potting, G Cervin, G M Nylund, J Olsson, E Albers, I Undeland, H Pavia, F Gröndahl, A comparative environmental life cycle assessment of hatchery, cultivation, and preservation of the kelp Saccharina latissima, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2020;, fsaa112, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsaa112 to calculate stored carbon after accounting for emissions from required materials, energy, transportation/dispersal, etc.

  • The MARINER program is currently working to incorporate macroalgae modules into the GREET model to analyze the life cycle of macroalgal biofuels

Accelerate RD&D Through New Partnerships

Research, development, and demonstration of macrolgae CDR may be accelerated and strengthened by creating partnerships with key industries/sectors, including:  

  • Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture[1]García-Poza, S., Leandro, A., Cotas, C., Cotas, J., Marques, J.C., Pereira, L. and Gonçalves, A.M., 2020. The Evolution Road of Seaweed Aquaculture: Cultivation Technologies and the Industry 4.0. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), p.6528. : Integration with finfish and shellfish to leverage cost savings with operations and achieve permaculture-style benefits (macroalgae can take up waste products generated by fish; fish can feed on macroalgae).
  • Offshore wind farms are often viewed as “dead space” for other marine spatial uses, but could provide power sources and platforms for macroalgal farms
  • Microalgae companies to adopt best practices for shore-based nursery facilities, such as nutrient and light needs to optimize growth and facility design(s) that maximize growth potential and minimize cost.

Developing and strengthening relationships with partner industries may also help promote public support, as well as potentially offer faster routes to obtaining the necessary permitting.

Research, development, and demonstration of macrolgae CDR may be accelerated and strengthened by creating partnerships with key industries/sectors, including:  

  • Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture{{1}}: Integration with finfish and shellfish to leverage cost savings with operations and achieve permaculture-style benefits (macroalgae can take up waste products generated by fish; fish can feed on macroalgae).
  • Offshore wind farms are often viewed as “dead space” for other marine spatial uses, but could provide power sources and platforms for macroalgal farms
  • Microalgae companies to adopt best practices for shore-based nursery facilities, such as nutrient and light needs to optimize growth and facility design(s) that maximize growth potential and minimize cost.

Developing and strengthening relationships with partner industries may also help promote public support, as well as potentially offer faster routes to obtaining the necessary permitting.

Research, development, and demonstration of macrolgae CDR may be accelerated and strengthened by creating partnerships with key industries/sectors, including:  

  • Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture{{1}}: Integration with finfish and shellfish to leverage cost savings with operations and achieve permaculture-style benefits (macroalgae can take up waste products generated by fish; fish can feed on macroalgae).
  • Offshore wind farms are often viewed as “dead space” for other marine spatial uses, but could provide power sources and platforms for macroalgal farms
  • Microalgae companies to adopt best practices for shore-based nursery facilities, such as nutrient and light needs to optimize growth and facility design(s) that maximize growth potential and minimize cost.

Developing and strengthening relationships with partner industries may also help promote public support, as well as potentially offer faster routes to obtaining the necessary permitting.

Research, development, and demonstration of macrolgae CDR may be accelerated and strengthened by creating partnerships with key industries/sectors, including:  

  • Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture: Integration with finfish and shellfish to leverage cost savings with operations and achieve permaculture-style benefits (macroalgae can take up waste products generated by fish; fish can feed on macroalgae).
  • Offshore wind farms are often viewed as “dead space” for other marine spatial uses, but could provide power sources and platforms for macroalgal farms
  • Microalgae companies to adopt best practices for shore-based nursery facilities, such as nutrient and light needs to optimize growth and facility design(s) that maximize growth potential and minimize cost.

Developing and strengthening relationships with partner industries may also help promote public support, as well as potentially offer faster routes to obtaining the necessary permitting.

Broaden Funding Base for RD&D

Injection of significant funding is critical to move forward needed RD&D projects for CDR generally, for ocean-based CDR, and for macroalgae CDR specifically.  In addition to national and subnational governmental support that is vitally needed and has been outlined in the Expanding Finance and Investment road map, additional stakeholders that need to be engaged include: 

Injection of significant funding is critical to move forward needed RD&D projects for CDR generally, for ocean-based CDR, and for macroalgae CDR specifically.  In addition to national and subnational governmental support that is vitally needed and has been outlined in the Expanding Finance and Investment road map, additional stakeholders that need to be engaged include: 

Injection of significant funding is critical to move forward needed RD&D projects for CDR generally, for ocean-based CDR, and for macroalgae CDR specifically.  In addition to national and subnational governmental support that is vitally needed and has been outlined in the Expanding Finance and Investment road map, additional stakeholders that need to be engaged include: 

Injection of significant funding is critical to move forward needed RD&D projects for CDR generally, for ocean-based CDR, and for macroalgae CDR specifically.  In addition to national and subnational governmental support that is vitally needed and has been outlined in the Expanding Finance and Investment road map, additional stakeholders that need to be engaged include: 

  • Impact investors: Impact investors may be able to help fund key demonstration projects to advance the field and de-risk investment
  • Private Philanthropy: Philanthropies can support 
    • The increased awareness and acceptance work that is so important and development of proposals for public financing mechanisms
    • Philanthropic support can also be key to support design of effective and transparent governance and permitting processes{{1}}
    • Build and utilize open-source tools to quantify size of global market, market potential, and cost drivers (see UC-Irvine model){{2}}.
  • Corporate Support: (specifically companies with net zero or carbon negative commitments, such as Stripe) can support early-stage testing and development of macroalgae CDR technologies. Companies can also support development of protocols for quantifying and verifying sequestration from existing and planned farms (see Oceans 2050 above) which might help to reduce barriers to finance and investment in this space. This opportunity may be especially important in Asia, where existing macroalgae farms could immediately take advantage of these credits for sequestration.

Impact investors

Impact investors may be able to help fund key demonstration projects to advance the field and de-risk investment

Private Philanthropy

Philanthropies can support

  • The increased awareness and acceptance work that is so important and development of proposals for public financing mechanisms
  • Philanthropic support can also be key to support design of effective and transparent governance and permitting processes[1]O’Shea, T., Jones, R., Markham, A., Norell, E., Scott, J., Theuerkauf, S., and T. Waters. 2019. Towards a Blue Revolution: Catalyzing Private Investment in Sustainable Aquaculture Production Systems. The Nature Conservancy and Encourage Capital, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
  • Build and utilize open-source tools to quantify size of global market, market potential, and cost drivers (see UC-Irvine model)[2]Sustainable Seaweed Solutions, www.ess.uci.edu/~sjdavis/seaweed.html. .

Corporate Support

(specifically companies with net zero or carbon negative commitments, such as Stripe) can support early-stage testing and development of macroalgae CDR technologies. Companies can also support development of protocols for quantifying and verifying sequestration from existing and planned farms (see Oceans 2050 above) which might help to reduce barriers to finance and investment in this space. This opportunity may be especially important in Asia, where existing macroalgae farms could immediately take advantage of these credits for sequestration.

Growing & Maintaining Public Support

First-Order Priorities to build public support for ocean-based CDR pathways are found in the Public Support road map, but there are some specific elements that can be emphasized to cultivate public support around macroalgae-based CDR:  

These include: 

  • The perceived advantage of nature-based approaches for macroalgae pathways[1]Bertram C and Merk C (2020) Public Perceptions of Ocean-Based Carbon Dioxide Removal: The Nature-Engineering Divide? Front. Clim. 2:594194. doi: 10.3389/fclim.2020.594194
  • Identification and quantification of the co-benefits associated with macroalgae cultivation
  • Inclusion of coastal blue carbon ecosystems as part of a campaign to build broad public support for macroalgae. 

First-Order Priorities to build public support for ocean-based CDR pathways are found in the Public Support road map, but there are some specific elements that can be emphasized to cultivate public support around macroalgae-based CDR:  

These include: 

  • The perceived advantage of nature-based approaches for macroalgae pathways{{1}}
  • Identification and quantification of the co-benefits associated with macroalgae cultivation
  • Inclusion of coastal blue carbon ecosystems as part of a campaign to build broad public support for macroalgae. 

First-Order Priorities to build public support for ocean-based CDR pathways are found in the Public Support road map, but there are some specific elements that can be emphasized to cultivate public support around macroalgae-based CDR:  

These include: 

  • The perceived advantage of nature-based approaches for macroalgae pathways{{1}}
  • Identification and quantification of the co-benefits associated with macroalgae cultivation
  • Inclusion of coastal blue carbon ecosystems as part of a campaign to build broad public support for macroalgae. 

First-Order Priorities to build public support for ocean-based CDR pathways are found in the Public Support road map, but there are some specific elements that can be emphasized to cultivate public support around macroalgae-based CDR:  

These include: 

  • The perceived advantage of nature-based approaches for macroalgae pathways
  • Identification and quantification of the co-benefits associated with macroalgae cultivation
  • Inclusion of coastal blue carbon ecosystems as part of a campaign to build broad public support for macroalgae. 
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